Chapter 5

By 1740 colonists started to cross the Appalachian Mountains into the Ohio river valley. This created conflict between indians and colonists. the French were dertermined to stop colonists from invading the land because they needed it for their forts on the Mississippi and land in Canada. This made native americans choose sides. The Iroquois allied with Britain and the Hurons, Algonquin sided with French because they were enimies with Hurons. War breaks out under George washingtons lead. He was headed to make Fort Duquesne but french just finished one there then there was conflict and British made fort Necessity. Delagates from 7 colonies gathered in New York to try to make one general government to help defent colonies, but none of the colonies accepted it. Edward Braddock was headed to take over Fort Duquesne but French were ahead of them and ambushed them and killed Braddock in the conflict. William Pitt becomes head of government and he sents his best generals to north america to encourege colonists to fight.The british started to dominate the war and take over forts especially quebec. both contries signed the treaty of paris which was an end to the war and gave all of french land east of Mississippi to british.

After the French were out of the Ohio river valley the Colonists moved in to claim land. This made conflicts between Indians and Colonists. The French were always nice to the Indians, they held feasts and gave them presents. The Colonists made the price of goods traded to the Indians higher. The Indians did not like this. This led to the Indians attacking the British forts. This was known as the Pontiac’s War. The Treaty of Paris was signed and thus the Indians no longer had help from the French. The Proclamation of 1763 drew a line across the top of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were forbidden to cross onto the West side. Those that were already there were supposed to move back to the East side. New taxes that were imposed by the British were the sugar tax and stamp act. The sugar tax lowered the previous tax on molasses but made convicting smugglers easier. The stamp act taxed all paper products and paper was required to have a stamp or it was illegal. Colonists thought this tax was unfair. “Taxation without Representation” made colonists angry because they had no say. Colonists sent a petition to King George III to protest this. They also boycotted all British goods. The British merchants trade with the Colonists was hurt so badly that the British merchants begged the King to repeal the act. It was repealed.

The Townshend Acts taxed glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. Although the tax was small, Colonists still refused it because, once again, they had no say. The Townshend Acts also made collecting taxes easier and inspecting cargo without reason. The Colonists again boycotted British goods. The Sons of Liberty staged mock hangings of British officials. The Daughters of LIberty visited merchants and urged them to boycott British merchandise. New leaders emerged from these protests. Samuel Adams was an organizer of protests. John Adams was a lawyer and understood the British law. Patrick Henry rallied people with his speeches. The Boston Massacre was a dispute over the quartering act. This act mandated Colonists to house British soldiers.

The Boston Tea Party was a result of the Tea Act. The Tea Act tried to help the British East India Company get out of debt. The Tea Act forced Colonists to buy tea from the British. The price of tea was less than ever but the tax was a little higher. The British reacted to the Tea Party by passing the Intolerable Acts. This shut down the port of Boston and forbid the Colonists to hold town meetings more than once a year. It also allowed British officials to be tried in England or Canada for crimes commited in Massachusetts. A new quartering act was also passed.

The First Continental Congress was made up of delegates from each colony except Georgia. The delegates passed a resolution backing Massachusetts, boycotted British goods, and stopped exporting goods to Britian until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. Each colony was urged by the delegates ot set up their own militia. In towns near Boston, minutemen collected guns and ammunition. They wanted to be able to defend themselves against the British. British scouts reported that there was a large store of arms in Concord. In April of 1775 British troops went to sieze the Colonial arms. The Sons of Liberty were watching and hung two lanterns in the Old North Church in Boston to signal “The British were coming. ” The shot heard around the world was the beginning of the Revolutionary War.

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13 Colonies

The 13 colonies were on the east coast of North America. They were separated into three sets of colonies. The Northern, the Middle, and the Southern colonies. They were under the control of the British Empire until they gained independence in 1776.

New Hampshire was found in 1623 by John Mason. He lived in Hampshire County, England. Mason sent settlers to the colony to turn it into a fishing colony, but he died before seeing the colony he had spent a lot of money building towns. The climate is very wet and pretty cool. The average rain fall is about 42 inches and the snow fall is about 50 inches of snow on average. The soils are leached out gravel with the exception of small deposits of dark soil along the rivers. That makes the land not very suitable for farming. Prior to European settlements the Native Americans inhabited the area of New Hampshire. They lived in loghouses and were called Abenaki.

Massachusetts was  founded in 1620  by Separtists otherwise known as Puritans. Separtists from England fled to Holland and then to America to have a home. They came on the Mayflower. The religious persecution was so bad in England that people started to move to different countries. They decided to move to the new world to be free and to  worship god how they wanted to.  Massachesutts receives about 45 inches of rain per year and 46 inches of snowfall. The weather is cool the weather is cool and average. The four seasons are very distinct.

Rhode Island’s state motto is “hope we have as an anchor of our soul”. The state was founded in 1636  by Roger Willians. The Massachusetts Bay Colony  banished him to England.  He didn’t go and  he went and lived with the Narragansett Indians then later formed the Colony of Rhode Island. All citizens were guaranteed freedom of worship and was founded on the seperation of church and state. The state is known for its independence and was the last to ratify the u.s. constitution after it had gone into effect. Rhode Island has a humid climate. the summers are short and the winters are cold. The average temperature is 50 degrees and rainfall is nearly 47 inches a year and snowfall about 37 inches. The state is covered in forests and the land has been glaciated and has many small lakes and rolling hills.

Conneticut was found in was found in 1636 by Thomas Hooker. The name was taken from the Indian Phrase meaning river whose water is driven by tides or winds. The colony was founded because people were moving out of Massachusetts to find a new place where they could be free and also for financial opportunities. The Fundemental Orders of Connecticut was created in 1639. Some people believe that this written Constitution becomes the basis for the Constitution of the Untied States. The climate was very cold and humid and the summers were short. The major trades were fishing, whaling and shipbuilding.

New York was found in 1626 by Peter Minuit and many more.. He gained control of New Netherland. They changed the name of the colony to New York after the Duke of York. New york was the 11th state to ratify the Constitution. The winters were cold, harsh, and windy. The summers were hot and humid. The soil is good for farming but the ground is rocky. The land is swampy toward the coast  and to the north mountains are covered by forests.

Pennsylvania was found in 1682 by William Penn. He recieved a large land grant from his father after he died. His idea for the colony was to have freedom of religion because he wanted to protect the fellow Quakers and himself from persecution. The colony was the richest colony in 1700. All citizens had freedmn of worship and religion. The winters were mild and the summers were warm. This made suitable farm ground. The colony was big in food production and livestock. Some others industries are the production of iron ore, lumber, furs, shipbuilding, and textiles.

New Jersey was found in 1664 by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The Duke of York granted his two friends the land. They advertised benefits that include representative government and freedon of religion. Quakers bought both charters and made East and West Jersey. New Jersey was the third to ratify the Constiution and the first to ratify the Bill of Rights. The summers were mild and humid and the winters were cold. The land made good farm ground growing cattle, grain, rice, and indigo.

Delaware was found by Peter Minuit and the New Sweden Company in 1638. The Coloney was named to Delaware after the indian tribe. Pennsylvania had control over Delaware until 1703 and goverened be Pennsylvania until the Revolutionary war was over. Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution. The colony was claimed by many different countries. The average rainfall per year is about 45 inches. Agriculture was a main industry for Delaware.

Maryland was found in 1634 by Lord Baltimore. The colony was created for the safety of Roman Catholics that were still being persecuted in England. It  was also established for  the profit that could be made in the production of tobacco. Tobacco was a main cash crop for Maryland and traded back to England to the upper class people there. Maryland was known as the haven for Catholics after the act of toleraton in 1649  that allowed all Christians to stay there without persecution. The climate is warmer than the middle and northern colonies, but it can also be cold in the winter. Maryland is very humid in the summer because it borders an ocean.

Virginia was found in 1624 but Jamestown was found in 1607 by The London Company during the reign of James I. Jamestown was found for the ideas of gaining wealth and to try to convet indians to be christains. In the new world Jamestown was the first permanent settlement. The land was very suitable for farming so thats what they used it for. They grew cash crops like tobacco and corn. Slaves aided the growing of these cash crops. the summers were hot, long and humid, which is good for growin gcrops.

North Carolina was found by Virginians in 1653. King Charles II sent a charter south of Virginia to create the colony of Carolina, but there was internal problems so it was split into North and South Carolinas. The colony of North Carolina was one of the last to ratify the Constitution after it had been in use already. Roanoke, the lost colony, is located in the North Carolina colony. The weather in North Carolina is very good compared to the other colonies. The Summers are pretty warm but not to hot and the winters rarely drop below freezing on a cold night.

South Carolina was found in 1663 by eight nobels in a charter for King Charles II. Like the previous paragraph said,  the Carolinas were one colony until there were internal problems and the colony was split into two separate colonies for wealth and farming purposes. This colony was farther south toward the equator which means it is warmer still and means it is better for growing cash crops  because of the longer growing season. This was the wealthiest colony out of the 13 colonies.

Georgia was found by John Oglethorpe in 1732. he was given a charter by King George II to start a new colony that was named Georgia. This was a place for debtors in prison to start a new free life. The other objective was to make a barrier to stop the Spanish explorations from Florida. Georgia started with the intention of no slavery and little landowning, but it became a royal colony in 1752 when plantations started and slavery were a major part of the economy. The summers are long hot and humid that were great for growing cash crops and the winters were very mild.

I think I would live in South Carolina because I like to farm, and think I would fit in there best. I would try to be a plantation owner and have slaves work for me. I would work with the slaves also and treat them good because they would work better if they were treated better.

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Pilgrims

Pilgrims were the original settlers of Plymouth Colony. This settlement was the second sucessful english settlement in America.The pilgrims had a stable and the congregation was pretty secure, but some issues were making it difficult. the speedwell was suppose to bring the passengers from the netherland to england and then to america. the ship turned out to be to small so the mayflower was leased for the voyage.

102 passengers borded the mayflower with the supplies and set sail. they sailed for sixty five days and reached cape cod. The Hudson river was the intended place but they didnt make it there. the pilgrims left england because the church of england was being over ruley and wanted them to join their church or force them out. the pilgrims saw an oppertunity and took the chance to leave england.

They became the religous persecutors of america. I can’t find much information about this but i think they thought they could rule the new land because there wasn’t very many people in the area. they started trying to force their beliefs of others congregations as more people showed up in ameria.the mayflower

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Northern colonies

The Purtians were a large group that didnt agree with the church of england and fled to avoid persecution. The Puritans felt that the Church of England and many of the laws were man made and not based on the Bible. They believed the bible was the plan for life.

Education was very important to the Puritans. One reason that education was so important so they could read the bible. they also wanted children to understand the laws of the country. reading schols were the source for girls education and boys could go to town grammer schools. gender determined the educational practices. women taught reeding and could not be a part of ministry.

 

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Quakers vs. Puritans

The Quakers traveled across the ocean in 1665 to what would become the middle colonies. In a fifty year period 23,000 people settled there. they called themselves the Society of Friends. some religous beliefs are that each person could be saved by “the inner light.” the light being Jesus. They didnt believe in authority of clergy. Also they didnt believe in war and thought it was wrong and didnt support military. they believed that god shouldn’t be worshipped in church. they had meetings in houses insted of servises in church.

The Puritans starting to moveing to Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630. They left England because they thought the Church of England was corrupt and many of the rules were man made and not based on the bible. they fled to avoid persecution. They tried to convert or force out anyone that didnt have the same beliefs.

The tolerance of religous beliefs differ greatly between the two groups. the puritans only wanted other puritans in their colony and the Quakers didn’t really care who was in their colony. Many of the Quakers were poor and were given the money to get to North America and they didn’t have a big debt to pay off after they got there. the Puritans were on the richer side of the spectrom.

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New Amsterdam

The Dutch West India company was exploring around what is now New York in 1609. Originally they were looking for the Northwest Passage but they did not find it. The ship was captained by Henry Hudson. The name sake of the Hudson River and Hudson Bay. The abundance of beavers in the area intriged them to stay.

The beaver pelts were a prized comodity in England. They were used to make waterproof hats. The beaver trade was very important and the mouth of the Hudson River was an ideal location of the settlement New Amsterdam. The location allowed ocean going vessels a port and allowed access inland via the Hudson River.

Fort Amsterdam was established in 1625 on Manhatten Island. The forts main purpose was to protect the mouth of the Hudson River from other European explorers. The location of the Fort was very strategic because any attack from the ocean would of been seen ahead of time and any attack from land would of been through swamp land.

New Amsterdam was a city for about ten and a half years under Dutch power. In 1664 four English ships came into the harbor and demanded them to surrender. this resulted in war and was depicted in this famous painting by Jean Leon Gerone Ferris.

File:The fall of New Amsterdam cph.3g12217.jpg

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silk slippers/wooden shoes

” History of full of sounds of silk slippers going down stairs and wooden shoes going up.” The people that make noise with wooden shoes are less privledged or on the poor side of life. The people with silk slippers are the higher class or more sophisticated.

Silk is an expensive, beautiful fabric that is more for show than durability. If a person has enough money to have many pairs of shoes, they might want a pair of silk shoes, even though they might not last very long.  Wood is a resource that most people can get their hands on. If they can’t afford to buy them they could make them.

I dont really know how this goes with the discussion in class. Over and over again in history it seems to be a struggle between the “haves” and “have nots”. Many times the “haves” seem to be looking for someone to overpower and the ” have nots” are struggling to remain independent.

 

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Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake was the second person to make a voyage around the world. It took three years to complete. He had 5 ships and added another one during the trip. Drake’s journey was not made without misfortune . They faced bad weather, attempted mutany and rotting timbers on a ship.

In addition to his voyage around the world he captured many Spanish ships that had a lot of silver on them. He was a pirate and captured many ships and sunk them. he was a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spanish. The Spanish refered to him as El Draque.

Drake was a huge part of the slave trade and traded them for valuable goods. He and his cousin, John Hawkins, came to dominate the slave trade. They abducted West African people from their towns and villages and sold them to spanish plantations. Sir Francis Drake

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The Iroquois league

The Iroquois lived in the North East United States and parts of Canada like Quebec and Onterio.  The Iroquois League  is also know as the Iroquois Confederacy. The name Iroquois means people of the long house. The Great Peace maker introduced the name at the time of formation of the league. It implies the nations of the league should live together in families in the same house.They formed the nation to stop the squabbling among the Iroquois Tribes. The formation seeems rather ironic because they became one of the most forceful groups of the North East.

They were governed by the grand counsel of the Iroquois league.Tthe council was made up by members of each of the six nations. The Grand Counsil was important for the ceremoinial and cultural aspect of the League. the Iroquois Confederacy was an organization that oversaw the political activities the came due to the European colonization.

The Iroquois were a matriarchal society. The women held property, dwellings, horses and farm land. The chief of the clan could be removed at anytime the elder women wanted to kick him out. In case of a divorce the women would ask the man to leave and take his belonings with him.  

Iroquois in Buffalo New York, 1914

A traditional longhouse.

 

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